Determination of the stem carbon content of individual species is very important and can play a key role when assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the ecosystems. It ranged from 0.41 to 8.75 m respectively in 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations (Table 1). In plot B Rhizophora mukronata as many as 381 trees with a base area value of 13,466 m2 / year, total volume value of 14,866 m3 / year, biomass value of 8,420 tons / ha, carbon of 4.210 tons / ha, average increment value of 0.39 cm / year / tree. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. The mangrove forests are very diverse ecosystems and they consist of true mangroves, mangrove-associated plants, and other organisms . Description A small to medium-sized tree, 2–5 m, even up to 10 m tall, with strong apical dominance. For Rhizophora mucronata DBH, crown height, total height, and stem height () were statistically significant with stem carbon content. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the major predictors of stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The residuals values for Rhizophora mucronata were calculated as the difference between the actual stem carbon content and predicted stem carbon content from the model. According to Kathiresan and Rajendran (2005), Rhizophora mucronata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are cosmopolitan species with wide distribution in Indian Ocean. 9 cm. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Generally, mature trees are expected to have long carbon residence time. Accordingly, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata, were selected for the study. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. In order to find whether the explanatory variables were related to each other, multicollinearity was checked. The present study identifies that the allometric model, Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBH as the best fit and practical model to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The measured stem carbon content of the Rhizophora mucronata trees used for model validation ranged from 1.3 kg to 4.3 kg and their predicted values ranged from 1.3 kg to 3.6 kg. The mangrove species (Rhizophora mucronata Poir.) 221 0 obj <> endobj 259 0 obj<<550E8272869711E2B0B9E80688CAF5AE>]/Info 220 0 R/Encrypt 222 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/W[1 3 1]/Index[221 74]/DecodeParms<>/Size 295/Prev 1251171/Type/XRef>>stream The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class was also calculated. The diameter at breast height of the sampled trees ranged from 4.7 cm to 15. The leaves are elliptical and usually about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long and 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide. The predictor variables used were DBH (diameter at breast height), total height, crown height, merchantable stem height, and leaf area. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. �f�z�bw�yd�R��h�u��'���;3I���Ye��i�j�����~I�-� ��8:Qc�5̏���!�_��n��0�IL��?鉍���V@���>�Ƥ3,�ք����3w��a�#�֯�͎σ�-bMV����(. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. This is a non-destructive method and it is environmentally friendly as it does not require the tree to be removed from its natural environment. B. S. Sabin, “Relationship between allometric variables and biomass in Western Juniper (Juniperus Occidentalis),” Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2008, M.S. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 to 50.5 m 2. thesis. Schimp. I. analysis of models,”, J. H. Brown and G. B. They have elongated tips but these often brea… ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective of using a nondestructive method to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in conserved tropical mangrove ecosystems. The leaves are 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, opposite, oblong or spear-shaped; the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower surface whitish or grayish. 6s+�E�9��e["�" R@D����$��``�4�/�!O�g`*�` *�� endstream endobj 294 0 obj<>stream Carbon sequestration performance at each diameter class was determined by calculating the mean stem carbon content at each diameter class. The results of the correlation analysis are given in Table 3. To construct the model, 75% of data were used. Therefore, total height, stem height, and crown height were eliminated to refit the model. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. The stem carbon content can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable tree parameter. The black mangrove, usually of moderate height, sometimes grows 18 to 21 metres (59 to 69 feet) tall. Propagules, those about to detach from trees were collected in August, 2013 in Pambala lagoon, Sri Lanka (7°34’N, 79°48’E) to use in the experiment. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree. The VIF > 5 suggests that the regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity, and 1 < VIF < 5 suggests that regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity. Findings of the present study can be extended to estimate the functional capacities carbon sequestration by other Sri Lankan mangroves, and therefore encourage rational decision making on conservation and management of mangrove areas for their ecological services including their carbon sequestration capacity and influence to mitigate predicted climatic changes. Most mangrove forests are located in tropical areas, although there are some expansions into subtropical regions as well. The VIF values were used to measure the effect of multicollinearity among the explanatory variables. The reliability of the model was 76.7%, and the model was significant at 95% level of significance. Rep., U.S. Agency for International Development, Program in Science and Technology Cooperation, Washington, DC, USA, 1990, Interim Report. Most of these allometric equations are used for the biomass related studies in terrestrial forest ecosystems. These genera are identified as most suitable species to be used in tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to their ability to distribute in a wide range of soil and hydrological conditions . 11 29' 08.0'' N;Long. Therefore, a discrepancy between the actual age of the tree 079 45' 29.9'' E), southeast coast of India was selected for pruning experiment. Considering the diameter at breast height of all the trees, the trees were grouped into classes as follows: Diameter class 1:4.0 < DBH ≤ 6.0 cm Diameter class 2: 6.0 < DBH ≤ 8.0 cm Diameter class 3: 8.0 < DBH ≤ 10.0 cm Diameter class 4: 10.0 < DBH ≤ 12.0 cm Diameter class 5: 12.0 < DBH ≤ 14.0 cm Diameter class 6: 14.0 < DBH ≤ 16.0 cm. The tree has a large number of S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe and A. M. R. Haripriya, “Prediction of stem biomass of, M. Köhl, P. R. Neupane, and N. Lotfiomran, “The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: a retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname,”, M. G. Ryan and B. J. Yoder, “Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth,”, M. G. Ryan, D. Binkley, and J. H. Fownes, “Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process,” in, E. V. Carey, A. Sala, R. Keane, and R. M. Callaway, “Are old forests underestimated as global carbon sinks?”, S. Delzon, M. Sartore, R. Burlett, R. Dewar, and D. Loustau, “Hydraulic responses to height growth in maritime pine trees,”, N. L. Stephenson, A. J. Das, R. Condit et al., “Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size,”, A. Komiyama, V. Jintana, T. Sangtiean, and S. Kato, “A common allometric equation for predicting stem weight of mangroves growing in secondary forests,”, B. Christensen, “Biomass and primary production of, S. Tamai, T. Nakasuga, R. Tabuchi, and K. Ogino, “Standing biomass of mangrove forests in southern Thailand,”, J. W. Day, W. H. Conner, F. Ley-Lou, R. H. Day, and A. M. Navarro, “The productivity and composition of mangrove forests, Laguna de Términos, Mexico,”. This species is commonly known as the loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, and Asiatic mangrove [4, 5]. For the best fit model, the explanatory variable DBH was statistically significant and the high R2 value of the best fit model indicated that the dependent variable which is the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. Height distribution analysis showed that eighty-eight percent (88%) of the mangroves were 8.5m high and mostly consisted A. marina, R. apiculata and R. mucronata.Very few tall trees (16m above high) were encountered and this comprised only 1% of the total population. Seventy individual trees of Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the study area based on purposive sampling. 2020, Article ID 8849413, 6 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8849413, 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. The stem carbon content indicated by different superscript letters is significantly different from each other at 95% level of significance (, The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s correlation analysis among the tree parameters of, The residual distribution diagram for the best fitted model of, The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for validation of the best fitted model for. The basic concept of allometric relationships is that the growth rate of one or more measurements of the tree is proportional to that of other parameters . Two models (Model A and Model B) were constructed from the stepwise regression with backward elimination method: Model A: Ln C = −1.545–2.122 Ln TH + 2.020 Ln MSH + 0.874 Ln CH + 2.011 Ln DBH Model B: Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBHHere, C: stem carbon content, TH: total height, MSH: merchantable stem height, CH: crown height, and DBH: diameter at breast height. The present study used a nondestructive method of measuring individual tree parameters to develop this allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content and it is considered as an environmentally friendly approach with minimum damage to the tree. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. The structure of mangrove vegetation is characterized in terms of species richness, diversity, tree/stem density, species and stand basal area, frequency of occurrence of constituent species, plant/stand height, above ground biomass and canopy volume/leaf area index. The fixed stem carbon biomass of all the core samples was determined by loss on the ignition method as described by Guendehou and Leehtonen . The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 2. W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Pawani Madhushani Liyanage, "Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of Rhizophora mucronata in a Tropical Mangrove Ecosystem", International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. VegetationMangrove communities. Menurut Hughes (2002) sistem kekebalan tubuh rentan terhadap kerusakan oksidatif, hal ini disebabkan karena sel imun memproduksi komponen-komponen reaktif sebagai bagian dari mekanisme pertahanan tubuh.Efektivitas kerja sistem imun sangat bergantung pada komunikasi antar sel melalui reseptor … Subscribe today. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. The correlation between the stem carbon content and the individual tree parameters was assessed using person’s correlation analysis. Show All Show Tabs Asiatic mangrove General Information; Symbol: RHMU Group: Dicot Family: Rhizophoraceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: PB N: Other Common Names: mangrove Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. var. apiculata used in the present study had 3-4 months of age with an average height of 46±2 cm with 3-4 leaves obtained from Surabaya City Agriculture Office nursery around the mangrove forest in Wonorejo. The highest percentage increase of mean stem carbon content was observed between the DBH classes 1 and 2. stylosa (Griff.) The result showed there were changes on environment parameters. B. Kauffman et al., “The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation,”. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. Rhizophora mucronata, a dominant species in the Kenyan mangroves (UNEP, 2001), has been reported on several occasions to form wood which completely lacks growth ... of the tree, but at 130 cm height above ground level. Plant height varied significantly between species or age of plantation (p<0.01 ), but not between season of analysis. The model was validated using the diagram between the actual values and the residual values and Student’s t test was used to compare the predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equation and the measured stem carbon content. Under these conditions Rhizophora mangle is able to reach a height of up to 35 meters but usually stops between 10 to 20 meters. This carbon is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content can be stored in the stem of the trees compared to the leaves. Sembilan was carried on 21 August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata seedlings. This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. The raw data of the study are available upon request from the corresponding author. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. The model bias values and the model efficiency values for the best fit model suggested that the model is suitable to be used practically. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Figures 4–5 show the height and dbh distributions of mangrove species in meters and centimeters respectively. menunjukkan bahwa buah bakau hitam (Rhizophora mucronata) memiliki antioksidan yang tinggi. These parameters can either be measured in sample (representative) areas, i.e. Distribution of the residuals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the distribution were between +1 and 1 implying a good fit for linear model (Figure 1). Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, and they have a considerable contribution of carbon dioxide mitigation. The reserved 25% of data were used for model validation. SizeCan reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft). Stem up to 400 mm in diameter, straight, with distinctive aerial roots or what is also referred to as knee-roots (breathing roots), with rough reddish, brown to almost … Qualitative assessment of vegetation structure often uses species richness, plant height and apparent zonation of … The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The studies that have been conducted so far have followed a destructive method of sampling, which involves the removal of sampled trees from the ecosystem and measuring the carbon content stored in the plant parts. The allometric equation, Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBH, where C: stem carbon content and DBH: diameter at breast height, was constructed to be evaluated and validated as the most suitable and practically applicable model. However, use of destructive methods for this purpose is not advisable as they can disrupt the balance of the carbon removal process. The data were tested for normality using the Anderson Darling test, and the nonnormalized data were log transformed as appropriate. MAI of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings Species Spacing (m) MAI Stem Diameter (mm/yr) Height (cm/yr) Rhizophora mucronata 1 x 1 20,94 a 19,23 a 0,5 x 0,5 20,82 a 15,78 a The actively growing trees can store more carbon in their stem. This effect was higher by 44.2% in the bacillus-treated seedlings grown under 35 g l-1 salinity (Figure 1), by 39.6% in the mixture treated seedlings raised under 17.5 g l-1, and by 28.1% in the azotobacter-treated On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more. The significantly highest stem carbon content was recorded from the Rhizophora mucronata trees at DBH class 5 (12.1 cm–14.00 cm). Declining tree growth over time is caused due to changes in the supply rate of required resources (light, nutrients, and water), change in balance between photosynthesis and respiration, increased hydraulic resistance, decreased nutrient supply, or genetic changes with meristem age which can result in increased carbon storage capacity of the mature trees compared to the new trees [17–21]. The residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 1. R. R. Twilley, R. Zimmerman, L. Solorzano et al., “The importance of mangroves in sustaining fisheries and controlling water quality in coastal ecosystems,” Tech. Furthermore, they can act as barriers to the excess silt and sediments washed away into estuaries and lagoons and thereby prevent the harm to the coral reefs and sea grass beds due to excessive siltation [7–10]. However, there was no significant difference in the mean stem carbon content of the trees at the DBH classes 4 and 6. However, the carbon sequestration potential of Rhizophora mucronata is not widely researched in the tropical mangrove ecosystems. Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. �`"��@$�B��i ������٢ �9L��u��e!j��Hc[�Dz��H.���SA$/�d����b+փ�� Table 4. In Rhizophora mucronata, the bacterial treatment increased the shoot height growth at different levels of salinity. M. L. G. Soares and Y. Schaeffer-Novelli, “Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of. In addition, Rhizophora mucronata is commonly used in the tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to its adaptability and rapid growth rate. The model bias value was very close to 0, and the modelling efficiency value was close to one indicating that the selected model is well suited to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar estuary (Lat. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The best fitted model was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods as described by Subasinghe and Haripriya . Furthermore, the results of the present study identifies that the Rhizophora mucronata as a suitable species to be used in mangrove replantation programs as it has the maximum carbon storage capacity when the trees are at a DBH range of 12–14 cm. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 … 2.2. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Therefore, it is recommended to extend this allometric equation development method to estimate the stem carbon content of other common tropical mangrove species in order to get an accurate estimate on the contribution of tropical mangrove stem carbon storage capacity for mitigation of global warming. Furthermore, Rhizophora mucronata is recognized as a species with a considerable economic importance as it provides natural products such as charcoal, wild honey, and timber, food, and medicinal element to the mangrove forest associated residents to improve the quality of their livelihoods [9, 10]. The descriptive statistics of the tree parameters of, The stem carbon content data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The variations of stem carbon content at different DBH classes are given in Table 2. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings is shown on the Table 4. Red mangrove is a tree with a glossy green, quite compact crown; it can grow 8 - 30 metres tall. The Archimedes displacement principle was used to measure the initial volume of the collected core samples. Two times of assessments, 17 May and 19 August 2015 were done to monitor and evaluate 325 ten months-rehabilitated seedlings. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to construct an allometric equation for the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The approximate global area covered by mangrove forests is estimated to be 140,000 km2 with the highest extent of mangroves occurring in Asia (42%), followed by Africa (20%) and North and Central America (15%) . ... as well as Rhizophora mucronata, ... Island in Western Visayas, while 12 were discovered in Masinloc, and they have an average diameter of 5.5 centimeters and height of 6 meters. The present study was conducted to develop an allometric model to determine the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a conserved tropical mangrove ecosystem. The mean stem carbon content at the lowest diameter class was significantly lower than the other diameter classes. However, few studies have used tree allometric modelling to determine the above ground biomass of mangrove trees in some regions of the world [22–27]. However, the removal of plants from their natural ecosystem can have detrimental effects to the global climate and therefore currently it is not encouraged to remove plants even for the research purposes. Growth rate of R. mucronata showed variations on absolute daily height growth rate range of 0.215-3.333 mm/day (average 1.296 0.036 mm/day), while absolute daily diameter growth rate range was 2.15x10-3-0.196 mm/day (average 4.25x10-2 3.59x10-2 mm/day). Increment borer was used to collect core samples of tree trunk from each tree at breast height with relatively minor injury to the tree. However, considering the current global warming conditions in the world, it is important to consider the carbon sequestration capacity of the selected species for replantation as the mangrove plants are considered to be excellent carbon dioxide removers from the atmosphere [11, 12]. Leaf area was not statistically significant. e residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronataisgiveninFigure1.Distributionoftheresiduals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the dis- The plant height was 8 % higher in Rhizophora mucronata than that in Avicennia marina. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. Table 3. The values within parentheses indicate the range of variation of the measured and predicted stem carbon content. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 kg to 109.6 kg (Table 1). As it is always better to keep the model simple in the real-world application, the model B was selected as the best model for Rhizophora mucronata. Rhizophora mucronata belongs to family Rhizophoraceae. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee (1990). There has been no specific study to highlight why R. mucronata became the dominant species of the The values within the parentheses indicate the range of each parameter. In model B, DBH (VIF = 1) showed a good fit for the model (R2 = 76.7%) (Table 4). The VIF = 1 means that there is no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables, and therefore, these variables are best suited to fit into the model. Measured and predicted stem carbon content of, Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of, Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Forestry Research, Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class (%), C. Giri, E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen et al., “Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data,”, W. Giesen, S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, “Mangrove guidebook for southeast Asia,”, A. E. Schwarzbach and R. E. Ricklefs, “Systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae, and intergeneric relationships within Rhizophoraceae, based on chloroplast DNA, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology,”, J. Kumar, M. E. Vijey Kumar, K. B. Ranjanna et al., “Ecological benefits of mangrove,”, N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly, “Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove-microbe-soil relations,” in, D. M. Alongi and P. Dixon, “Mangrove primary production and above-and below-ground biomass in Sawi Bay, southern Thailand,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change,”, K. Dhanwantri, P. Sharma, S. Mehta, and P. Prakash, “Carbon sequestration, its methods and significance,”, D. Murdiyarso, J. Purbopuspito, J.
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